The four factors in the process of resilience

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The four factors in the process of resilience

Morrison and Merith A. Cosden Abstract This article uses the concepts of risk and resiliency to frame our understanding of how having a learning disability affects nonacademic outcomes such as emotional adjustment, family functioning, adolescent problems of school dropout, substance abuse and juvenile delinquency, and adult adaptation.

The presence of a learning disability viewed as a risk factor that, in and of itself, does not predict positive negative outcomes. Rather, other risk and protective factors, as highlighted in the literature, interact with the presence of a learning disability to facilitate or impede adjustment.

These risk and protective factors may be internal characteristics of -the individual or external characteristics of the family, school and community environments. Implications for the development of proactive interventions and areas for future research are discussed.

The four factors in the process of resilience

This article will examine how stressors, throughout the life cycle, affect the emotional and societal adjustment of individuals with learning disabilities. As noted by Bender and Wallserious intra- and interpersonal problems, including loneliness, depression, suicide, and delinquency, are common among individuals with learning disabilities.

Recent theories of risk and resiliency, based on early work by Garmezy, Masten, and Tellegen and Rutterprovide a framework for understanding the complex factors that influence the adjustment of individuals with learning disabilities.

A review of current models Garmezy defined risk factors as those that are associated with the increased likelihood of an individual developing an emotional or behavioral disorder in comparison with a randomly selected person from the general population.

Keogh and Weisner defined risk as "a11 negative or potentially negative condition that impedes or threatens normal development" p. Ramey, Trohanis, and Hostler suggested that risk is associated with the likelihood of future development of a handicap.

We note here that risk has become a catch-all term for a multitude of conditions that may lead to negative outcomes and that attention should be paid to specifying outcomes and factors associated with those outcomes. Being of the male gender has also been identified as a risk factor for developmental delay and developmental psychopathology Rutter, ; Werner, This fact is especially pertinent given the predominance of boys who are identified as having a learning disability.

Environmental risk factors for delay and psychopathology include chronic poverty Garmezy et al. For these outcomes, different factors come into play. For example, the work of J. David Hawkins and colleagues on adolescent alcohol and other drug abuse has emphasized the risks of negative peer influence, lack of normative expectations for nonuse, and alienation from or lack of bonding to school, family and community.

In this article, we will focus on the additional internal and external risk factors that may interact with the learning disability to create socioemotional complications or societal maladjustments. Garmezy and Masten defined resilience as a "process of, or capacity for, or the outcome of successful adaptation despite challenging and threatening circumstances" p.

Zimmerman and Arunkumar described resiliency as the ability to spring back from adversity or "those factors and processes that interrupt the trajectory from risk to problem behavior or psychopathology and thereby result in adaptive outcomes even in the presence of challenging and threatening circumstances" p.

Garmezyin turn, categorized protective factors leading to resilience as a child factors, such as positive temperament and social competence; b family factors including supportive parent s and consistent rule setting; and c community factors, including positive relationships with significant adults and supportive school environments.Prior ClimatePaleo-Geology PreGlacial RetreatPost-glacial Rebound - Crustal MovementLake Level ReconstructionHistoric Climate PostLake LevelsNatural FactorsHydrologic CycleShort-term FlucuationsSeasonal FluctuationsLong-term .

voluntary resilience. an assessment of market options for boston’s large commercial buildings.

Resilience Introduction Resilience can be defined as the capability to recover from adversity in general. It has been investigated by different researchers for many years and the terms “Resilience” may not be firmly defined to find the commonality for research. This raises the controversial. 4. Factors Influencing Workforce Effectiveness and Resilience. This chapter includes sessions that examined work-related stressors from both workshops. With this process resilience analysis framework (PRAF), three major issues in the field of risk management in the process industry will be addressed: reduced LoC events, reduced consequences from failures and quicker recovery.

standards. overview november Protective Factors & Resiliency. and community can impact the ways in which children and teens process and understand the exposure to violence. Resilience has been defined as the maintenance of healthy ⁄ successful functioning or adaptation within the context of a significant adversity or threat.

The four factors in the process of resilience

1. Master Resilience Training (MRT) is a resilience-training program that is offered by the United States Army.

Bibliometric analysis reveals the influential literature on urban resilience. • The concept of resilience is beset by six conceptual tensions. This free badged course, Developing career resilience, will help you to understand the factors that influence career resilience, and offer examples and tactics for . Resilience is the process of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats or significant sources of stress — such as family and relationship problems, serious health problems or workplace and financial stressors. It means "bouncing back" from difficult experiences.

The goal of the program is to teach officers about resilience and to train those officers to teach other soldiers about resilience as well. It is a joint effort between the Positive. Children’s Bureau/ACYF/ACF/HHS.

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