Simile - contrasting to seemingly unalike things to enhance the meaning of a situation or theme using like or as What happens to a dream deferred, does it dry up like a raisin in the sun Hyperbole - exaggeration I have a million things to do today. Personification - giving non-human objects human characteristics America has thrown her hat into the ring, and will be joining forces with the British. Foot - grouping of stressed and unstressed syllables used in line or poem Iamb - unstressed syllable followed by stressed Made famous by the Shakespearian sonnet, closest to the natural rhythm of human speech How do I love thee? The iamb stumbles through my books; trochees rush and tumble; while anapest runs like a hurrying brook; dactyls are stately and classical.
There is a great deal of variety in the imagery of these structures, but tame animals and wise rulers are common in structures analogical to the apocalyptic analogy of innocencewhile predatory aristocrats and masses living in squalor characterize analogy to the demonic analogy of experience.
Frye then identifies the mythical mode with the apocalyptic, the ironic with the demonic, and the romantic and low mimetic with their respective analogies. The high mimeticthen, occupies the center of all four.
This ordering allows Frye to place the modes in a circular structure and point to the cyclical nature of myth and archetypes. In this setting, literature represents the natural cycle of birth, growth, maturity, decline, death, resurrectionrebirth, and the repetition of the cycle.
The remainder of the chapter deals with the cycle of the four seasons as embodied by four mythoi: Theory of Genres"[ edit ] In the first three essays, Frye deals mainly with the first three elements of Aristotle's Techniques used in descriptive essay of poetry i.
In the fourth essay, he explores the last three elements: It may be referred to as diction ear or imagery eye depending on the critical focus.
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Frye identifies the connection as such: The world of individual thought and idea has a correspondingly close connection with the eye. Rhetoric means two things: Rhetorical criticism, then, is the exploration of literature in the light of melos, opsis, and their interplay as manifested in lexis.
The radical of presentation—the relation or idealized relation between author and audience—is a further consideration. Difference in genre relies not on topical considerations science fiction, romance, mysterynor in length e. As such, Frye proposes a total of four distinct genres: These four genres form the organizing principle of the essay, first examining the distinctive kind of rhythm of each, then looking at specific forms of each more closely.
As Frye describes each genre, he explains the function of melos and opsis in each. To understand Frye's melos, it is important to note[ according to whom? He contends that the common usage of the term is inaccurate for purposes of criticism, drawn from analogy with harmony, a stable relationship.
Music, however, does not consist of a plastic, static, continuously stable relationship, but rather a series of dissonances resolving at the end into a stable relationship. Poetry containing little dissonance, then, has more in common with the plastic arts than with music.
The original presentation of the epic was ta epe that which is spokenand when an author, speaker, or storyteller addresses a visible audience directly, we have epos.
The rhythm of epos is that of recurrence i.
These are the rhythms most commonly associated with poetry. Part of the difficulty comes from fact that this is the only of the four genres which has no precedent in antiquity.
He acknowledges having used the term previously in a different sense. In this essay, the term refers to literature in which the author addresses the audience through a book, or more simply stated, prose.
The rhythm of prose is that of continuity of meaning. Drama lies halfway between epos and fiction, or more accurately, its diction must fit the setting and the character. Some characters may be melos-oriented, speaking in meter or with various rhetorical effects in song and banter.
Others may be opsis-oriented, speaking more in prose and conveying ideological content. Most characters alternate according to the dramatic situation.
Such a marriage of the appropriate language with the character and setting ethos defines a rhythm of decorum, the distinctive rhythm of drama. Classical lyrical poetry often presents a shepherd speaking of his love; he is overheard by his audience.
However, the distinctiveness of lyric comes more from its peculiar rhythm than from this radical of representation. Frye describes this rhythm as associative rather than logical and is the stuff of dreams and the subconscious.
It is closely related to the chant, and though it is found in all literature, it is more apparent in certain kinds of literature than others. At this point Frye suggests a connection between the four historical modes and the four genres.
In this sense, the lyrical is typical of the ironic age—just as the ironic protagonist has turned away from society, the lyrical poet makes utterances without regard to the audience. The lyrical rhythm is very clearly seen in Joyce's Finnegans Wakea work based almost entirely on associative babbles and dream utterance.Descriptive Writing Techniques A descriptive paragraph or an essay should contain all the details, which appeal to the five senses (sight, smell, sound, touch and taste) of a reader.
Descriptive writing can be fiction or non-fiction writing. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (/ ɪ ˈ l aɪ z ə /, / ˌ iː ˈ l aɪ z ə /) is a commonly used analytical biochemistry assay, first described by Weiland in The assay uses a solid-phase enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to detect the presence of a ligand (commonly a protein) in a liquid sample using antibodies directed against the protein to be measured.
Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays (Princeton University Press, ) is a book by Canadian literary critic and theorist, Northrop Frye, which attempts to formulate an overall view of the scope, theory, principles, and techniques of literary criticism derived exclusively from literature.
Frye consciously omits all specific and practical criticism, instead offering classically inspired theories. Video: Descriptive Writing: Definition, Techniques & Examples This lesson will assist you in identifying descriptive writing found in literature and ways you can apply it .
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What this handout is about. This handout provides definitions and examples of the two main types of abstracts: descriptive and informative. It also provides guidelines for constructing an abstract and general tips for you to keep in mind when drafting.