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A Brief Ec onomic History Economic history is an important field of study. In the so-called primitive economiesfood was the greatest wealth, which was directly related to the land.
As political empires grew, so would their wealth-concentrating capacities. The earliest industries, such as the forging of copper and irongrew from artistic endeavors, and the metal that became the subject of more human passion than any other, gold, may have been the first metal that was worked, although it is more generally thought that copper was worked first.
Gold was associated with the Sun, was considered a sacred substance in many cultures, and was used in artwork. Gold was too soft to make tools or weapons, but it became the artistic and sacred metal.
Whereas the Fertile Crescent had little gold, Egypt had the first great gold mines, out in the desert.
Worked by slaves, with their bones littering the mines, Egypt set the pattern of Western gold mining labor standards. The slaves were deemed expendable, and properly feeding and housing them was more costly than obtaining new slaves, so the logic of the day demanded that the slaves be worked to death in the minesif they even survived the journey to them.
Gold abounded in the royal quarters, their thrones, and tombs.
Gold was officially a royal monopoly, although there was a black market for it. The gold made its way in small measure to the commoners, and the other burgeoning civilizations lusted for it. The gold buried with the Pharaohs was eventually dug up by grave robbers and made its way into the economy as jewelry and a symbol of wealth.
In the Old Testa ment, even the Jewish god lusted for gold. Egypt eventually declined, and from Assyria to Babylonia, from Hittites to Minoans to Phoenicians and Carthaginians, from Persia to Greece, empires continually rose and fell in that region.
Gold was a central concern of all of them, and was the universal measure of wealth. As an empire rose, it plundered all the gold it could from its neighbors.
The same piece of gold could pass through many incarnations over the millennia, perhaps starting as a work of art after being gleaned from the earth.
Then it was buried with its owner, then the grave was robbed and it was sold for food. Mining took place across that part of the world, usually in or near mountains.
Using much of what the Etruscans taught them, the Roman Empire built great buildings, roads, and aqueducts that people still marvel over. The Roman Empire was also one of the most murderous, greedy, and cruel regimes that the world has known.
Political murder, debauchery, and greed were standard features of Roman life. If one became part of the middle class or better, life could be pretty good.
Yet, the Roman Empire was built on the blood and bones of those who did the work. To entertain the masses, people were forced to murder one another at the various arenas, and the grandest was the Coliseum, where the Emperor would lead the festivities.
The slaves often preferred taking their chances in the arenas rather than work in the imperial mines. Rome eventually ran out of energy and collapsedand Europe reverted to a primarily agrarian culture for the next millennium.
Civiliz ed people did not comprehend the difference between real wealth and its symbol. Gold was the ultimate currency, because it was scarce and durable. There is no intrinsic wealth in gold. Ancient peoples could not eat it, or make a tool or weapon from it. A produce of which the value is principally derived from its scarcity, is necessarily degraded by its abundance.Pinckney Lochridge Scrapbook Description:Scrapbook containing newspaper clippings, ephemera and memoirs related to life of Mrs.
Elizabeth Pinckney (Boyd) Lochridge of Auburn. Context: Pinckney Boyd was born in Oregon in and soon moved to her her family's farm one mile south of Slaughter (Auburn) yunusemremert.com married Clement .
Orting Methodist Church began in as a missionary outpost. On December 9, four pioneers of Orting came together in faith to place their signatures on the papers of incorporation and the Orting Methodist Church was born.
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The unidentified woman said she leapt out of bed and called police after she woke to find a monster on top of her. Orting is a city in Pierce County, Washington, United States. The population as of the census is 6,, according to the City of Orting. Orting is a small city . Orting is a city in Pierce County, Washington, United yunusemremert.com population as of is 8,, according to the City of Orting.