Type of school providing this education: Primary General School Length of program in years:
Examples include cereals, coffee beans, sugar, palm oil, eggs, milk, fruits, vegetables, beef, cotton and rubber. Thus, within a particular grade, and with respect to a given variety, commodities coming from different suppliers, and even different countries or continents, are ready substitutes for one another.
For example whilst two varieties of coffee bean, such as robusta and arabica, do have differing characteristics but two robustas, albeit from different continents, will, within the same grade band, have identical Local studies of grading system in all important respects.
Agricultural commodities are generic, undifferentiated products that, since they have no other distinguishing and marketable characteristics, compete with one another on the basis of price.
Commodities contrast sharply with those products which have been given a trademark or branded in order to communicate their marketable differences.
Differentiated products are the subject of the chapter which follows. This chapter is largely descriptive and is intended to merely to give an overview of commodity marketing.
Five categories of commodity are discussed in this chapter: Since this textbook ostensibly deals with agricultural and food products marketing and marketing systems internal to developing countries, the exclusion of non-food crops such as tobacco, cotton and rubber, was deliberate.
If products like these had been included then de facto, the discussion would have been oriented towards export or international marketing. The objectives of this chapter are to provide the reader with an understanding of: The principal stages of agricultural commodity marketing The main participants in commodity marketing systems and the roles which they perform, and The essential features of the assembly, transporting, grading, processing and consumption of selected agricultural commodities.
Structure Of The Chapter The chapter has a simple structure. Eight stages of commodity marketing are identified at the beginning of the chapter. This is a general model and therefore not all of the stages it describes are equally applicable to the commodities selected for discussion.
This being so, certain stages are given more or less emphasis; and for some commodities specific stages are omitted altogether from the discussion.
Thus the chapter gives a generalised impression of agricultural commodity marketing. Stages in a commodity marketing system A commodity marketing system encompasses all the participants in the production, processing and marketing of an undifferentiated or unbranded farm product such as cerealsincluding farm input suppliers, farmers, storage operators, processors, wholesalers and retailers involved in the flow of the commodity from initial inputs to the final consumer.
The commodity marketing system also includes all the institutions and arrangements that effect and coordinate the successive stages of a commodity flow such as the government and its parastatals, trade associations, cooperatives, financial partners, transport groups and educational organisations related to the commodity.
The commodity system framework includes the major linkages that hold the system together such as transportation, contractual coordination, vertical integration, joint ventures, tripartite marketing arrangements, and financial arrangements.
The systems approach emphasises the interdependence and inter relatedness of all aspects of agribusiness, namely: The marketing systems differ widely according to the commodity, the systems of production, the culture and traditions of the producers and the level of development of both the particular country and the particular sector within that country.
This being the case, the overview of the structure of the selected major commodities marketed, which follows, is both broad and general. The major commodities whose marketing systems will be discussed in this chapter are, large grains, livestock and meat, poultry and eggs, cotton, fruit and vegetables and milk.
Assembly Commodity buyers specialising in specific agricultural products, such commodities as grain, cattle, beef, oil palm, cotton, poultry and eggs, milk Stage 2: Independent truckers, trucking companies, railroads, airlines etc.By Anthony Cody.
This week leaders in the California Department of Education released a new system for “grading schools” that proposes to assign schools a set of colored indicators based on a variety of measurements.
This system is intended to replace the old system of performance indicators which gave schools a single numeric score, (the Academic Performance Index, or API) based only on.
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§ Social Studies, Grade 8, Beginning with School Year (a) Introduction. (1) In Grade 8, students study the history of the United States from the early colonial period through Reconstruction.
Farmers: The level of farmer-to-farmer trade can be substantial. Where there is a degree of specialisation within the livestock and meat marketing system, for example when some farmers concentrate on breeding or fattening, amount of farmer-to-farmer trade can be very high.
STRUCTURE OF EDUCATION SYSTEM IN RUSSIA. Search + Universities for Bachelor, Master, Diploma & Professional Courses. The A1 suffix is typically seen as part of an application identification number or grant number and “A1” is often used to refer to a new, renewal, or revision application that is amended and resubmitted after the review of a previous application with the .