High school is another story. Because students test into upper secondary education, they may or may not live in the same town as their high school. Thus many students may come by bus or train.
Because it simplifies the discussion, we have let the images from Chapter 2 associated with each model represent the model. This will suffice for this chapter, although we will also have reason in later chapters to distinguish between different images of different models.
We will see, for example, that there are different kinds of productive organization and that the Factory is only one image of it. We will suggest that a different kind of productive organization might be able to handle the difficulties in present school organization.
But for this chapter, Temple, Factory and Town Meeting serve as our expectation models of the school as an organization. Who exactly carries out the tasks in an organization can substantially affect its success.
In a school, implementation power affects student achievement. Elmore, focussing on problems of the implementation of social programs, presents four models of the organization.
Where we find Temple and Factory in the expectation models, Elmore Japanese school systems vs american essay broken them up into the Organizational Development model, the Systems Management model and the Bureaucratic model. These new implementation models share characteristics of the expectation models they overlap.
The importance of distinguishing among these models is that program implementation can fail in different ways, depending upon the model used to examine the organization. If we wish to ask of a proposed reform, "What can go wrong? The Systems management model conceives the school to be something like a large computer that the proper programming controls.
Its failures are primarily failures in planning. The Bureaucratic model recognizes that in complex organizations implementation power is spread throughout the organization. Most actions taken are routine and derived from policy.
Success in this model is a matter of adapting routines to reflect policy and making sure that power centers deliver the goods. The Organizational Development model sees effective organizations as reflecting the consensus and commitment of its members.
Where such consensus is lacking, failure follows. Finally, the Conflict and Bargaining model sees success as a matter of one group's having sufficient power to impose its conceptions of policy on others. Because the research that has been done with them is important.
And because they give us another perspective to examine that very complex reality that is the school. In fact, there are other models we could use but they don't serve our purposes as well.
This is as complicated as it needs to get. We need only distinguish between our original expectation models of the school, Temple, Factory and Town Meeting, and these four new implementation models.
Clearly, however, it is important that we understand more about these new models and how they illuminate that organization we call the school. How can things go wrong? It's a simple task to row your friend across a stream in a canoe.
But it's not a simple thing, even if it's possible, for the U. Simple tasks may not be simple for a complex organization. It's not unusual for a parent to drop into school and ask that his or her child's fotgotten gym shorts be brought to them by a certain period.
The bigger the school, the less likely this simple task will be accomplished. For the same reason it is difficult to get an error corrected on a utility bill.
Or to find someone who can do something about a fixing a defect in your brand new car. Individuals can perform simple and amazingly varied tasks. Organizations function best with complex and routine ones. Organizations are composed of individual persons.
Organizational tasks and products are developed from the tasks and products of individual persons, too.
We saw in previous chapters that our expectations about schools affect what we believe the structure of the school to be and how people in the school should relate to one another.
In this chapter we will see how an individual performs a simple task and then see how this simple task changes in different organizational structures. In order to understand better the charts below illustrating different organizational models, let's begin with a chart that represents the performance of simple tasks performed by an individuale.
At the end of chapter 4, we developed a general slogan, a basic model for achieving educational goals: School goals are achievable when adequate resources are provided for effective, feasible tasks of implementation.
To keep things simple, we will try to restrict ourselves to items introduced by this slogan, goals, tasks and resources.Education in the United States is provided by public, private and home schools..
State governments set overall educational standards, often mandate standardized tests for K–12 public school systems and supervise, usually through a board of regents, state colleges, and universities.
Funding comes from the state, local, and federal government. Private schools are generally free to determine. Affordable Papers is an online writing service which has helped students from the UK, US, and Europe for more than 10 years.
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alientraveller. So many issues with what Rowling wrote, like the demolishing of the diversity of Native American cultures, and the depiction of real-life Medicine Men as frauds in her universe.
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ESSAYS, term and research papers available for UNLIMITED access. The Japanese educational system was reformed after World War II. The old system was changed to a system (6 years of elementary school, 3 years of junior high school, 3 years of senior high school and 4 years of University) with reference to the American system.