Although promise implementations follow a standardized behaviour, their overall APIs differ. Do something within the callback, perhaps async, then call resolve if everything worked, otherwise call reject. The benefit of Error objects is they capture a stack trace, making debugging tools more helpful.
Introduction Quite often I see a question in a newsgroup or forum along the lines of: What is so special about it? Why should I use it? How do I use it? The person asking this type of question usually has experience of non-OO programming and wants to know the benefits of making the switch.
Unfortunately most of the replies I have seen have been long on words but short on substance, full of airy-fairy, wishy-washy, meaningless phrases which are absolutely no use at all to man or beast. People tell me that my methods are wrong, but they are making a classic mistake.
My methods cannot be wrong for the simple reason that they workand anybody with more than two brain cells to rub together will tell you that something that works cannot be wrong just as something that does not work cannot be right.
Another reason is that some of the explanations about OO are rather vague and can be interpreted in several ways, and if something is open to interpretation it is also open to a great deal of mis -interpretation. Even some of the basic terminology can mean different things to different people, as explained in Abstraction, Encapsulation, and Information Hiding.
If these people cannot agree on the basic concepts of OOP, then how can they possibly agree on how those concepts may be implemented. In compiling the following list I picked out those descriptions which are not actually unique to OOP as those features which already exist in non-OO languages cannot be used to differentiate between the two.
It provides for better modeling of the real world by providing a much needed improvement in domain analysis and then integration with system design. OOP is no better at modeling the real world than any other method. Every computer program which seeks to replace a manual process is based on a conceptual software model of that process, and if the model is wrong then the software will also be wrong.
OOP does not provide the ability to model objects which could not be modelled in previous paradigms, it simply provides the ability to produce different types of models where both the data and the operations which act upon that data can be defined encapsulated in the same unit class.
OOP does not guarantee that the model will be better, just that the implementation of that model will be different.
|What is REST?||If you're a jQuery user, they have something similar called Deferreds. Although promise implementations follow a standardized behaviour, their overall APIs differ.|
|Windows API - Wikipedia||Be aware that this is not going to be a classic how-to article that delves more or less deeply into some technical issue or feature. It is, instead, an article that aims at providing an overview of the options you have at present for architecting Web solutions.|
|Configuration||You can enable the Pre-chat Survey feature on a specific page. This can also be done on your Behavior and Text settings page.|
|Do you know what a REST API is? — SitePoint||Pass a map to enable any of the following specific validation features: This is enabled by default when paramValidation is set to true.|
You should also consider the fact that it would be totally impractical to model the whole of the real world as it is simply too vast and too complicated. It is only ever necessary to model those parts which are actually relevant to your current application, and it is the exercise of deciding what is and is not relevant which decides if your abstraction is correct.
Bear in mind that unless you are developing software which directly manipulates a real-world object, such as process control, robotics, avionics or missile guidance systems, then some of the properties and methods which apply to that real-world object may be completely irrelevant in your software representation.
If, for example, you are developing an enterprise application such as Sales Order Processing which deals with entities such as Products, Customers and Orders, you are only manipulating the information about those entities and not the actual entities themselves. In pre-computer days this information was held on paper documents, but nowadays it is held in a database in the form of tables, columns and relationships.
An object in the real world may have many properties and methods, but in the software representation it may only need a small subset. For example, an organisation may sell many different products with each having different properties, but all that the software may require to maintain is an identity, a description and a price.
A real person may have operations such as stand, sit, walk, and run, but these operations would never be needed in an enterprise application. Regardless of the operations that can be performed on a real-world object, with a database table the only operations that can be performed are Create, Read, Update and Delete CRUD.
Following the process called data normalisation the information for an entity may need to be split across several tables, each with its own columns, constraints and relationships. Each object in the database is a separate table, so I see no reason why I should not have a separate class in my software to deal with each object in my database.
Some people advocate having a group of database tables being handled by a single class, but this is not how databases work. It is not necessary to go through one table to get to another as each table is an independent object with its own properties.
So, each independent object in the database should have its own independent class in the software. The term "abstraction" is also open to interpretation, and therefore mis-interpretation, as discussed in Understand what "abstraction" really means. That is why it is possible to create software that does A, B and C but it is useless to the customer as it does not also do X, Y and Z.
The real world may contain X, Y and Z but the analyst did not include it in his model either because he did not spot it or because the customer failed to mention it in his Specification Of Requirements SOR. I know because I have encountered both situations in my long career.
Not everyone agrees that direct real-world mapping is facilitated by OOP, or is even a worthy goal; Bertrand Meyer argues in Object-Oriented Software Construction that a program is not a model of the world but a model of a model of some part of the world; "Reality is a cousin twice removed".
OOP is about code re-use The power of object-oriented systems lies in their promise of code reuse which will increase productivity, reduce costs and improve software quality. Using OOP does not guarantee that more reusable code will be available as reusability depends on how the code is written, not the language in which it was written.
It is possible to produce libraries of reusable modules in any non-OO language I know, because I was doing just that with COBOL in just as it is possible to produce volumes of non-reusable code in any OO language.In software engineering, a fluent interface (as first coined by Eric Evans and Martin Fowler) is a method for designing object oriented APIs based extensively on method chaining with the goal of making the readability of the source code close to that of ordinary written prose, essentially creating a domain-specific language within the interface.
The core library provides only the editor component, no accompanying buttons, auto-completion, or other IDE functionality. It does provide a rich API on top of which such functionality can be straightforwardly implemented.
The Windows API, informally WinAPI, is Microsoft's core set of application programming interfaces (APIs) available in the Microsoft Windows operating systems. The name Windows API collectively refers to several different platform implementations that are often referred to by their own names (for example, Win32 API); see the versions section.
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