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For the essay about over-citing obvious things, see Wikipedia: You don't need to cite that the sky is blue. State facts that may be obvious to you, but are not necessarily obvious to the reader.
Usually, such a statement will be in the first sentence or two of the article. For example, consider this sentence: The Ford Thunderbird was conceived as a response to the Chevrolet Corvette and entered production for the model year. Here no mention is made of the Ford Thunderbird's fundamental nature: It assumes that the reader already knows this—an assumption that may not be correct, especially if the reader is not familiar with Ford or Chevrolet.
However, there is no need to go overboard. There is no need to explain a common word like "car". Repetition is usually unnecessary, for example: Shoichi Yokoi was conscripted into the Imperial Japanese Army in However, the following is not only verbose but redundant: Lead section As explained in more detail at Wikipedia: The lead should establish significance, include mention of consequential or significant criticism or controversies, and be written in a way that makes readers want to know more.
The appropriate length of the lead depends on that of the article, but should normally be no more than four paragraphs. The lead itself has no heading and, on pages with more than three headings, automatically appears above the table of contents, if present.
It should clearly explain the subject so that the reader is prepared for the greater level of detail that follows.
If further introductory material is appropriate before the first section, it can be covered in subsequent paragraphs in the lead. Introductions to biographical articles commonly double as summaries, listing the best-known achievements of the subject.
Because some readers will read only the opening of an article, the most vital information should be included.
First sentence content The article should begin with a short declarative sentence, answering two questions for the nonspecialist reader: Similarly, where an article title is of the type "List of When the page title is used as the subject of the first sentence, it may appear in a slightly different form, and it may include variations.
Similarly, if the subject is a term of artprovide the context as early as possible. An electron is a subatomic particle that carries a negative electric charge. However, if the title of a page is descriptive and does not appear verbatim in the main text, then it should not be in boldface.
So, for example, Electrical characteristics of dynamic loudspeakers begins with: The chief electrical characteristic of a dynamic loudspeaker 's driver is its electrical impedance as a function of frequency.
If the subject of the page is normally italicized for example, a work of art, literature, album, or ship then its first mention should be both bold and italic text; if it is usually surrounded by quotation marks, the title should be bold but the quotation marks should not: If the subject of the page has a common abbreviation or more than one name, the abbreviation in parentheses and each additional name should be in boldface on its first appearance: Use as few links as possible before and in the bolded title.
Thereafter, words used in a title may be linked to provide more detail: The rest of the opening paragraph Then proceed with a description. Remember, the basic significance of a topic may not be obvious to nonspecialist readers, even if they understand the basic characterization or definition.
Peer review, known as refereeing in some academic fields, is a scholarly process used in the publication of manuscripts and in the awarding of money for research.
Publishers and agencies use peer review to select and to screen submissions. At the same time, the process assists authors in meeting the standards of their discipline.
Publications and awards that have not undergone peer review are liable to be regarded with suspicion by scholars and professionals in many fields.
The rest of the lead section If the article is long enough for the lead section to contain several paragraphs, then the first paragraph should be short and to the point, with a clear explanation of what the subject of the page is. The following paragraphs should give a summary of the article.
They should provide an overview of the main points the article will make, summarizing the primary reasons the subject matter is interesting or notable, including its more important controversies, if there are any. The appropriate length of the lead section depends on the total length of the article.
As a general guideline:A Guide to Writing an AGU Abstract. Thinking of an abstract as a miniature scientific paper and its creation as a series of simple steps can ease becoming a presenter at an AGU meeting.
Tuesdays I will occasionally feature “How-To(sday)” posts, short guides to certain genres of academic writing. I’m happy to take requests for these. Just email me at [email protected] Today we look at the paper/conference proposal abstract. This is a critical genre of writing for.
Guidelines to Writing an Abstract Rabih A. Chaer, MD Associate Professor of Surgery Division of Vascular Surgery Introduction to Research Principles Scholarship Program VAM. Washington DC. June 5 DISCLOSURES PowerPoint Presentation Author: Randy Oest -- UMC.
Oral Abstract Presentation Guidelines Selected abstract submissions will be presented during Oral Abstract Sessions generally lasting for 2 hours.
Authors will present their peer-reviewed research in a specific topic area, and presentations will . REGISTER NOW! SQUIRE Writing Conference - November 13 , Dallas, TX.
Registration now open!This year's conference will held November 13 - 14, in Dallas, Texas at the Meadows Conference Center. AACE recognizes the importance of providing continued education to its members, which may require financial support from an outside entity through unrestricted educational grants.