This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract This meta-analysis of published and unpublished manuscripts was conducted to determine whether the association between parenting and delinquency exists and what the magnitude of this linkage is. Several effect sizes were moderated by parent and child gender, child age, informant on parenting, and delinquency type, indicating that some parenting behaviors are more important for particular contexts or subsamples.
Life Course Theory Life course theory, more commonly termed the life course perspective, refers to a multidisciplinary paradigm for the study of people's lives, structural contexts, and social change. This approach encompasses ideas and observations from an array of disciplines, notably history, sociology, demography, developmental psychology, biology, and economics.
In particular, it directs attention to the powerful connection between individual lives and the historical and socioeconomic context in which these lives unfold.
As a concept, a life course is defined as "a sequence of socially defined events and roles that the individual enacts over time" Giele and Elderp. These events and roles do not necessarily proceed in a given sequence, but rather constitute the sum total of the person's actual experience.
Thus the concept of life course implies age-differentiated social phenomena distinct from uniform life-cycle stages and the life span. Life span refers to duration of life and characteristics that are closely related to age but that vary little across time and place.
In contrast, the life course perspective elaborates the importance of time, context, process, and meaning on human development and family life Bengtson and Allen The family is perceived as a micro social group within a macro social context—a "collection of individuals with shared history who interact within ever-changing social contexts across ever increasing time and space" Bengston and Allenp.
Aging and developmental change, therefore, are continuous processes that are experienced throughout life. As such, the life course reflects the intersection of social and historical factors with personal biography and development within which the study of family life and social change can ensue Elder ; Hareven Historical Development Many researchers identify the life course perspective as a "new" paradigm in the behavioral sciences because it was not formally advanced until the s.
During this decade, rapid social change and population aging drew attention to historical influences and to the complexity of processes underlying family change and continuity.
Advances in statistical techniques also prompted the continued growth of life course studies, including the creation of new methodologies to analyze longitudinal data.
Early applications of life course theorizing can be traced to the beginning decades of the twentieth century Bengston and Allen Until the mids, however, no distinct field of life course studies, with a focus on the variability of age patterns, developmental effects, and the implications of historical change, gained prominence.
At this time, researchers from diverse social science disciplines e. For example, Bernice Neugarten pioneered a research program that considered individual deviations from widely shared age-expectations about the timing of major transitional events for example, when to marry or to have children.
Research conducted in the s and s continued to incorporate these themes, as well as to focus attention on historical changes in life patterns, the consequences of life course experiences such as the Great Depression on subjective well-being, the interlocking transitions of family members, and integrating kin and age distinctions, among others Burton and Bengtson ; Clausen ; Elder ; Rossi and Rossi By the end of the twentieth century, the life course approach was commonly considered an "emerging paradigm" Rodgers and White with both a distinctive theory and methods.
Glen Elder, in particular, began to advance core principles of life course theory, which he describes as defining "a common field of inquiry by providing a framework that guides research on matters of problem identification and conceptual development"p.
This perspective has also been and continues to be synthesized with other theories or fields of study, such as family development e. Key Principles and Concepts Several fundamental principles characterize the life course approach. Each of these tenets will be described and key concepts will be highlighted.
This will be followed by an overview of selected examples of empirical applications from an international and cross-cultural perspective. Sociohistorical and geographical location. An individual's own developmental path is embedded in and transformed by conditions and events occurring during the historical period and geographical location in which the person lives.
For example, geopolitical events e. Thus, behavior and decisions do not occur in a vacuum, because people and families interact within sociohistorical time.The prevalence of antisocial and delinquent behavior in juveniles has increased dramatically over the past decades, along with the prevalence of other health .
potential pathway of delinquency/crime escalation and de-escalation across ado-lescence and young adulthood. In particular, the time-varying consequences for delinquent behavior and young adult crime of persistent or increasing levels of strain are addressed using data from the Family Health Study, an eight-year longitudinal data set (n=).
Stress General strain theory Life-course Delinquency Young adult crime This paper has benefitted from my collaborations with the late S.
Susan Su, Felicia Gray Cerbone, Dean Gerstein, the late Alan Miller, Robert Johnson, Karen Spence, Craig Rivera, and Tim Ireland. and Sampson, Laub, and Moffit’s Life-Course Theory, are applied to each individual juvenile. Also, the three factors that are hypothesized as being contributors to a juvenile’s criminal life- course, specifically, peer group, family home environment, and school life, are examined with.
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