Adherence to extended postpartum antiretrovirals is associated with decreased breast milk HIV-1 transmission.
Health risks[ edit ] Central obesity is associated with a statistically higher risk of heart diseasehypertensioninsulin resistanceand Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 see below. Central obesity is a symptom of Cushing's syndrome  and is also common in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome PCOS.
Central obesity is associated with glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. Once dyslipidemia becomes a severe problem, an individual's abdominal cavity would generate elevated free fatty acid flux to the liver.
The effect of abdominal adiposity occurs not just in those who are obese, but also affects people who are non-obese and it also contributes to insulin sensitivity. Recent validation has concluded that total and regional body volume estimates correlate positively and significantly with biomarkers of cardiovascular risk and BVI calculations correlate significantly with all biomarkers of cardio-vascular risk.
Central obesity is known to predispose individuals for insulin resistance. Abdominal fat is especially active hormonally, secreting a group of hormones called adipokines that may possibly impair glucose tolerance. But adiponectin which is found in lower concentration in obese and diabetic individuals has shown to be beneficial and protective in Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
As a result of breathing at low lung volume, the muscles are tighter and the airway is narrower. It is commonly seen that people who are obese breathe quickly and often, while inhaling small volumes of air.
Recent studies have also shown an association between mid-life obesity and dementia, but the relationship between later life obesity and dementia is less clear. Based on logistic regression analyses, it was found that obesity was associated with an almost fold increase risk of Alzheimer's disease.
Diet and obesity The currently prevalent belief is that the immediate cause of obesity is net energy imbalance—the organism consumes more usable calories than it expends, wastes, or discards through elimination.
Some studies indicate that visceral adiposity, together with lipid dysregulation and decreased insulin sensitivity is related to the excessive consumption of fructose. Quality protein uptake is defined as the ratio of essential amino acids to daily dietary protein. Thus, the excess of triglycerides and fatty acids created by the visceral fat cells will go into the liver and accumulate there.
In the liver, most of it will be stored as fat. This concept is known as 'lipotoxicity'. Many prescription drugs, such as dexamethasone and other steroids, can also have side effects resulting in central obesity,  especially in the presence of elevated insulin levels. The prevalence of abdominal obesity is increasing in western populations, possibly due to a combination of low physical activity and high-calorie diets, and also in developing countries, where it is associated with the urbanization of populations.
It is recommended to use both standards. BMI will illustrate the best estimate of your total body fatness, while waist measurement gives an estimate of visceral fat and risk of obesity-related disease. Excluding energy under-reporters slightly attenuated these associations.
After controlling for energy under-reporting, it was observed that increasing alcohol consumption significantly increased the risk of exceeding recommended energy intakes in male participants — but not in the small number of female participants 2.
Further study is needed to determine whether a significant relationship between alcohol consumption and abdominal obesity exists among women who consume higher amounts of alcohol. In those with a BMI under 35, intra-abdominal body fat is related to negative health outcomes independent of total body fat.
However, waist measurements are not as accurate as BMI measurements. For this reason, it is recommended to use both methods of measurements.
A differential diagnosis includes distinguishing central obesity from ascites and intestinal bloating. In the cohort of 15, people participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NHANES IIIwaist circumference explained obesity-related health risk better than the body mass index or BMI when metabolic syndrome was taken as an outcome measure and this difference was statistically significant.Preliminary evidence suggests that goal-oriented cognitive rehabilitation (CR) may be a clinically effective intervention for people with early-stage Alzheimer’s disease, vascular or mixed dementia and their carers.
This study aims to establish whether CR is a clinically effective and cost-effective intervention for people with early-stage dementia and their carers. This study used a structured multiple case study methodology, which provided rich and contextually situated data from multiple sources that could be used to make sense of complex organizational dynamics (Yin, ).
Boston University is a leading private research institution with two primary campuses in the heart of Boston and programs around the world. Case Study 1: ‘Stuart’ (names been changed) From our Join the dots study Male, 37, on Community Payback Order (and previous prison experience) Stuart has served a number of short prison sentences Title: Founder at THEATRE NEMO & .
Case Study Series Case Studies Product Sampler Case Studies in Maternity & Women’s Health:Frontmatter [The author] has done an excellent job of assisting students to . Search Court Sentence/Case database, by Court, Solicitor, Barrister, Offence.
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